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World’s poorest need land rights to cope with climate change

World’s poorest need land rights to cope with climate change



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December 22, 2013

By

Food Tank

Our climate change adaptation and mitigation efforts don’t have to come at the expense of small-holder farmers. We need to acknowledge that families and communities most impacted by climate change –and by our responses to it– do not have secure rights to land and therefore face a host of added vulnerabilities.


Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty or the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing ( [tɕʰíŋ] ), was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China from 1644 to 1912, with a brief restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The multiethnic Qing empire lasted for almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for modern China. It was the fourth largest empire in world history in terms of territorial size in 1790, also making it the largest Chinese dynasty. At a population of 432 million in 1912, it was the world's most populous country. [3]

The dynasty was founded by the House of Aisin-Gioro, a Manchu clan. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing "Banners" which were military-social units that included Manchu, Han, and Mongol elements. Nurhaci united Manchu clans and officially proclaimed the Later Jin dynasty in 1616. His son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of the Liaodong Peninsula and declared a new dynasty, the Qing, in 1636. As Ming control disintegrated, peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng conquered the capital Beijing in 1644. Ming general Wu Sangui refused to serve them, but opened the Shanhai Pass to the Banner Armies led by the regent Prince Dorgon, who defeated the rebels and seized the capital. Dorgon served as Prince regent under the Shunzhi Emperor. Resistance from the Ming loyalists in the south and the Revolt of the Three Feudatories led by Wu Sangui delayed the complete conquest until 1683 under the Kangxi Emperor (1661–1722). The Ten Great Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor from the 1750s to the 1790s extended Qing control into Inner Asia. During the peak of the Qing dynasty, the empire ruled over the entirety of today's Mainland China, Hainan, Taiwan, Mongolia, Outer Manchuria and Outer Northwest China. It also ruled parts of modern day Kazakhstan, almost all of modern day Kyrgyzstan, parts of modern day Pakistan, India, and a small part of modern day Afghanistan. The early Qing rulers maintained their Manchu customs and were patrons of Tibetan Buddhism. They governed using a Confucian style and bureaucratic institutions, retaining the imperial examinations to recruit Han Chinese to work under or in parallel with the Manchu rulers. They also adapted the ideals of the Chinese tributary system in asserting superiority over peripheral countries such as Korea and Vietnam, while annexing neighboring territories such as Tibet and Mongolia.

The dynasty reached its peak in the late 18th century, then gradually declined in the face of challenges from abroad, internal revolts, population growth, disruption of the economy, corruption, and the reluctance of ruling elites to change their mindsets. The population rose to some 400 million, but taxes and government revenues were fixed at a low rate, leading to fiscal crisis. Following the Opium Wars, European powers led by Great Britain imposed "unequal treaties", free trade, extraterritoriality and treaty ports under foreign control. The Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864) and the Dungan Revolt (1862–1877) in Central Asia led to the death of over 20 million people, due to famine, disease, and war. The Tongzhi Restoration of the 1860s brought tepid attempts to modernize the country. The initial gains in the Self-Strengthening Movement were lost in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895, in which the Qing lost its influence over Korea and the possession of Taiwan. New Armies were organized, but the ambitious Hundred Days' Reform of 1898 was turned back in a coup by the conservative Empress Dowager Cixi (1835–1908), who had been the dominant voice in the national government (with one interruption) after 1861. When the Juye Incident by foreign powers triggered the violently anti-foreign and anti-imperialist "Boxers" in 1900, with many foreigners and Christians killed, the foreign powers invaded China. Cixi sided with the Boxers and was decisively defeated by the eight invading powers, leading to the flight of the Imperial Court to Xi'an.

After agreeing to sign the Boxer Protocol, the government initiated unprecedented fiscal and administrative reforms, including elections, a new legal code, and abolition of the examination system. Sun Yat-sen and other revolutionaries competed with constitutional monarchists such as Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao to transform the Qing Empire into a modern nation. After the deaths of the Guangxu Emperor and Cixi in 1908, the hardline Manchu court alienated reformers and local elites alike by obstructing social reform. The Wuchang Uprising on 10 October 1911 led to the Xinhai Revolution. General Yuan Shikai negotiated the abdication of Puyi, the last emperor, on 12 February 1912, bringing the dynasty to an end. It was restored briefly but ineffectively in 1917. The fall of the Qing Dynasty led briefly to dictatorial rule under the Republic of China, but ultimately ushered in a period of prolonged instability: the Warlord Era.


Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty or the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing ( [tɕʰíŋ] ), was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China from 1644 to 1912, with a brief restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The multiethnic Qing empire lasted for almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for modern China. It was the fourth largest empire in world history in terms of territorial size in 1790, also making it the largest Chinese dynasty. At a population of 432 million in 1912, it was the world's most populous country. [3]

The dynasty was founded by the House of Aisin-Gioro, a Manchu clan. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing "Banners" which were military-social units that included Manchu, Han, and Mongol elements. Nurhaci united Manchu clans and officially proclaimed the Later Jin dynasty in 1616. His son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of the Liaodong Peninsula and declared a new dynasty, the Qing, in 1636. As Ming control disintegrated, peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng conquered the capital Beijing in 1644. Ming general Wu Sangui refused to serve them, but opened the Shanhai Pass to the Banner Armies led by the regent Prince Dorgon, who defeated the rebels and seized the capital. Dorgon served as Prince regent under the Shunzhi Emperor. Resistance from the Ming loyalists in the south and the Revolt of the Three Feudatories led by Wu Sangui delayed the complete conquest until 1683 under the Kangxi Emperor (1661–1722). The Ten Great Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor from the 1750s to the 1790s extended Qing control into Inner Asia. During the peak of the Qing dynasty, the empire ruled over the entirety of today's Mainland China, Hainan, Taiwan, Mongolia, Outer Manchuria and Outer Northwest China. It also ruled parts of modern day Kazakhstan, almost all of modern day Kyrgyzstan, parts of modern day Pakistan, India, and a small part of modern day Afghanistan. The early Qing rulers maintained their Manchu customs and were patrons of Tibetan Buddhism. They governed using a Confucian style and bureaucratic institutions, retaining the imperial examinations to recruit Han Chinese to work under or in parallel with the Manchu rulers. They also adapted the ideals of the Chinese tributary system in asserting superiority over peripheral countries such as Korea and Vietnam, while annexing neighboring territories such as Tibet and Mongolia.

The dynasty reached its peak in the late 18th century, then gradually declined in the face of challenges from abroad, internal revolts, population growth, disruption of the economy, corruption, and the reluctance of ruling elites to change their mindsets. The population rose to some 400 million, but taxes and government revenues were fixed at a low rate, leading to fiscal crisis. Following the Opium Wars, European powers led by Great Britain imposed "unequal treaties", free trade, extraterritoriality and treaty ports under foreign control. The Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864) and the Dungan Revolt (1862–1877) in Central Asia led to the death of over 20 million people, due to famine, disease, and war. The Tongzhi Restoration of the 1860s brought tepid attempts to modernize the country. The initial gains in the Self-Strengthening Movement were lost in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895, in which the Qing lost its influence over Korea and the possession of Taiwan. New Armies were organized, but the ambitious Hundred Days' Reform of 1898 was turned back in a coup by the conservative Empress Dowager Cixi (1835–1908), who had been the dominant voice in the national government (with one interruption) after 1861. When the Juye Incident by foreign powers triggered the violently anti-foreign and anti-imperialist "Boxers" in 1900, with many foreigners and Christians killed, the foreign powers invaded China. Cixi sided with the Boxers and was decisively defeated by the eight invading powers, leading to the flight of the Imperial Court to Xi'an.

After agreeing to sign the Boxer Protocol, the government initiated unprecedented fiscal and administrative reforms, including elections, a new legal code, and abolition of the examination system. Sun Yat-sen and other revolutionaries competed with constitutional monarchists such as Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao to transform the Qing Empire into a modern nation. After the deaths of the Guangxu Emperor and Cixi in 1908, the hardline Manchu court alienated reformers and local elites alike by obstructing social reform. The Wuchang Uprising on 10 October 1911 led to the Xinhai Revolution. General Yuan Shikai negotiated the abdication of Puyi, the last emperor, on 12 February 1912, bringing the dynasty to an end. It was restored briefly but ineffectively in 1917. The fall of the Qing Dynasty led briefly to dictatorial rule under the Republic of China, but ultimately ushered in a period of prolonged instability: the Warlord Era.


Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty or the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing ( [tɕʰíŋ] ), was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China from 1644 to 1912, with a brief restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The multiethnic Qing empire lasted for almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for modern China. It was the fourth largest empire in world history in terms of territorial size in 1790, also making it the largest Chinese dynasty. At a population of 432 million in 1912, it was the world's most populous country. [3]

The dynasty was founded by the House of Aisin-Gioro, a Manchu clan. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing "Banners" which were military-social units that included Manchu, Han, and Mongol elements. Nurhaci united Manchu clans and officially proclaimed the Later Jin dynasty in 1616. His son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of the Liaodong Peninsula and declared a new dynasty, the Qing, in 1636. As Ming control disintegrated, peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng conquered the capital Beijing in 1644. Ming general Wu Sangui refused to serve them, but opened the Shanhai Pass to the Banner Armies led by the regent Prince Dorgon, who defeated the rebels and seized the capital. Dorgon served as Prince regent under the Shunzhi Emperor. Resistance from the Ming loyalists in the south and the Revolt of the Three Feudatories led by Wu Sangui delayed the complete conquest until 1683 under the Kangxi Emperor (1661–1722). The Ten Great Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor from the 1750s to the 1790s extended Qing control into Inner Asia. During the peak of the Qing dynasty, the empire ruled over the entirety of today's Mainland China, Hainan, Taiwan, Mongolia, Outer Manchuria and Outer Northwest China. It also ruled parts of modern day Kazakhstan, almost all of modern day Kyrgyzstan, parts of modern day Pakistan, India, and a small part of modern day Afghanistan. The early Qing rulers maintained their Manchu customs and were patrons of Tibetan Buddhism. They governed using a Confucian style and bureaucratic institutions, retaining the imperial examinations to recruit Han Chinese to work under or in parallel with the Manchu rulers. They also adapted the ideals of the Chinese tributary system in asserting superiority over peripheral countries such as Korea and Vietnam, while annexing neighboring territories such as Tibet and Mongolia.

The dynasty reached its peak in the late 18th century, then gradually declined in the face of challenges from abroad, internal revolts, population growth, disruption of the economy, corruption, and the reluctance of ruling elites to change their mindsets. The population rose to some 400 million, but taxes and government revenues were fixed at a low rate, leading to fiscal crisis. Following the Opium Wars, European powers led by Great Britain imposed "unequal treaties", free trade, extraterritoriality and treaty ports under foreign control. The Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864) and the Dungan Revolt (1862–1877) in Central Asia led to the death of over 20 million people, due to famine, disease, and war. The Tongzhi Restoration of the 1860s brought tepid attempts to modernize the country. The initial gains in the Self-Strengthening Movement were lost in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895, in which the Qing lost its influence over Korea and the possession of Taiwan. New Armies were organized, but the ambitious Hundred Days' Reform of 1898 was turned back in a coup by the conservative Empress Dowager Cixi (1835–1908), who had been the dominant voice in the national government (with one interruption) after 1861. When the Juye Incident by foreign powers triggered the violently anti-foreign and anti-imperialist "Boxers" in 1900, with many foreigners and Christians killed, the foreign powers invaded China. Cixi sided with the Boxers and was decisively defeated by the eight invading powers, leading to the flight of the Imperial Court to Xi'an.

After agreeing to sign the Boxer Protocol, the government initiated unprecedented fiscal and administrative reforms, including elections, a new legal code, and abolition of the examination system. Sun Yat-sen and other revolutionaries competed with constitutional monarchists such as Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao to transform the Qing Empire into a modern nation. After the deaths of the Guangxu Emperor and Cixi in 1908, the hardline Manchu court alienated reformers and local elites alike by obstructing social reform. The Wuchang Uprising on 10 October 1911 led to the Xinhai Revolution. General Yuan Shikai negotiated the abdication of Puyi, the last emperor, on 12 February 1912, bringing the dynasty to an end. It was restored briefly but ineffectively in 1917. The fall of the Qing Dynasty led briefly to dictatorial rule under the Republic of China, but ultimately ushered in a period of prolonged instability: the Warlord Era.


Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty or the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing ( [tɕʰíŋ] ), was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China from 1644 to 1912, with a brief restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The multiethnic Qing empire lasted for almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for modern China. It was the fourth largest empire in world history in terms of territorial size in 1790, also making it the largest Chinese dynasty. At a population of 432 million in 1912, it was the world's most populous country. [3]

The dynasty was founded by the House of Aisin-Gioro, a Manchu clan. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing "Banners" which were military-social units that included Manchu, Han, and Mongol elements. Nurhaci united Manchu clans and officially proclaimed the Later Jin dynasty in 1616. His son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of the Liaodong Peninsula and declared a new dynasty, the Qing, in 1636. As Ming control disintegrated, peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng conquered the capital Beijing in 1644. Ming general Wu Sangui refused to serve them, but opened the Shanhai Pass to the Banner Armies led by the regent Prince Dorgon, who defeated the rebels and seized the capital. Dorgon served as Prince regent under the Shunzhi Emperor. Resistance from the Ming loyalists in the south and the Revolt of the Three Feudatories led by Wu Sangui delayed the complete conquest until 1683 under the Kangxi Emperor (1661–1722). The Ten Great Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor from the 1750s to the 1790s extended Qing control into Inner Asia. During the peak of the Qing dynasty, the empire ruled over the entirety of today's Mainland China, Hainan, Taiwan, Mongolia, Outer Manchuria and Outer Northwest China. It also ruled parts of modern day Kazakhstan, almost all of modern day Kyrgyzstan, parts of modern day Pakistan, India, and a small part of modern day Afghanistan. The early Qing rulers maintained their Manchu customs and were patrons of Tibetan Buddhism. They governed using a Confucian style and bureaucratic institutions, retaining the imperial examinations to recruit Han Chinese to work under or in parallel with the Manchu rulers. They also adapted the ideals of the Chinese tributary system in asserting superiority over peripheral countries such as Korea and Vietnam, while annexing neighboring territories such as Tibet and Mongolia.

The dynasty reached its peak in the late 18th century, then gradually declined in the face of challenges from abroad, internal revolts, population growth, disruption of the economy, corruption, and the reluctance of ruling elites to change their mindsets. The population rose to some 400 million, but taxes and government revenues were fixed at a low rate, leading to fiscal crisis. Following the Opium Wars, European powers led by Great Britain imposed "unequal treaties", free trade, extraterritoriality and treaty ports under foreign control. The Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864) and the Dungan Revolt (1862–1877) in Central Asia led to the death of over 20 million people, due to famine, disease, and war. The Tongzhi Restoration of the 1860s brought tepid attempts to modernize the country. The initial gains in the Self-Strengthening Movement were lost in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895, in which the Qing lost its influence over Korea and the possession of Taiwan. New Armies were organized, but the ambitious Hundred Days' Reform of 1898 was turned back in a coup by the conservative Empress Dowager Cixi (1835–1908), who had been the dominant voice in the national government (with one interruption) after 1861. When the Juye Incident by foreign powers triggered the violently anti-foreign and anti-imperialist "Boxers" in 1900, with many foreigners and Christians killed, the foreign powers invaded China. Cixi sided with the Boxers and was decisively defeated by the eight invading powers, leading to the flight of the Imperial Court to Xi'an.

After agreeing to sign the Boxer Protocol, the government initiated unprecedented fiscal and administrative reforms, including elections, a new legal code, and abolition of the examination system. Sun Yat-sen and other revolutionaries competed with constitutional monarchists such as Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao to transform the Qing Empire into a modern nation. After the deaths of the Guangxu Emperor and Cixi in 1908, the hardline Manchu court alienated reformers and local elites alike by obstructing social reform. The Wuchang Uprising on 10 October 1911 led to the Xinhai Revolution. General Yuan Shikai negotiated the abdication of Puyi, the last emperor, on 12 February 1912, bringing the dynasty to an end. It was restored briefly but ineffectively in 1917. The fall of the Qing Dynasty led briefly to dictatorial rule under the Republic of China, but ultimately ushered in a period of prolonged instability: the Warlord Era.


Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty or the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing ( [tɕʰíŋ] ), was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China from 1644 to 1912, with a brief restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The multiethnic Qing empire lasted for almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for modern China. It was the fourth largest empire in world history in terms of territorial size in 1790, also making it the largest Chinese dynasty. At a population of 432 million in 1912, it was the world's most populous country. [3]

The dynasty was founded by the House of Aisin-Gioro, a Manchu clan. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing "Banners" which were military-social units that included Manchu, Han, and Mongol elements. Nurhaci united Manchu clans and officially proclaimed the Later Jin dynasty in 1616. His son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of the Liaodong Peninsula and declared a new dynasty, the Qing, in 1636. As Ming control disintegrated, peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng conquered the capital Beijing in 1644. Ming general Wu Sangui refused to serve them, but opened the Shanhai Pass to the Banner Armies led by the regent Prince Dorgon, who defeated the rebels and seized the capital. Dorgon served as Prince regent under the Shunzhi Emperor. Resistance from the Ming loyalists in the south and the Revolt of the Three Feudatories led by Wu Sangui delayed the complete conquest until 1683 under the Kangxi Emperor (1661–1722). The Ten Great Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor from the 1750s to the 1790s extended Qing control into Inner Asia. During the peak of the Qing dynasty, the empire ruled over the entirety of today's Mainland China, Hainan, Taiwan, Mongolia, Outer Manchuria and Outer Northwest China. It also ruled parts of modern day Kazakhstan, almost all of modern day Kyrgyzstan, parts of modern day Pakistan, India, and a small part of modern day Afghanistan. The early Qing rulers maintained their Manchu customs and were patrons of Tibetan Buddhism. They governed using a Confucian style and bureaucratic institutions, retaining the imperial examinations to recruit Han Chinese to work under or in parallel with the Manchu rulers. They also adapted the ideals of the Chinese tributary system in asserting superiority over peripheral countries such as Korea and Vietnam, while annexing neighboring territories such as Tibet and Mongolia.

The dynasty reached its peak in the late 18th century, then gradually declined in the face of challenges from abroad, internal revolts, population growth, disruption of the economy, corruption, and the reluctance of ruling elites to change their mindsets. The population rose to some 400 million, but taxes and government revenues were fixed at a low rate, leading to fiscal crisis. Following the Opium Wars, European powers led by Great Britain imposed "unequal treaties", free trade, extraterritoriality and treaty ports under foreign control. The Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864) and the Dungan Revolt (1862–1877) in Central Asia led to the death of over 20 million people, due to famine, disease, and war. The Tongzhi Restoration of the 1860s brought tepid attempts to modernize the country. The initial gains in the Self-Strengthening Movement were lost in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895, in which the Qing lost its influence over Korea and the possession of Taiwan. New Armies were organized, but the ambitious Hundred Days' Reform of 1898 was turned back in a coup by the conservative Empress Dowager Cixi (1835–1908), who had been the dominant voice in the national government (with one interruption) after 1861. When the Juye Incident by foreign powers triggered the violently anti-foreign and anti-imperialist "Boxers" in 1900, with many foreigners and Christians killed, the foreign powers invaded China. Cixi sided with the Boxers and was decisively defeated by the eight invading powers, leading to the flight of the Imperial Court to Xi'an.

After agreeing to sign the Boxer Protocol, the government initiated unprecedented fiscal and administrative reforms, including elections, a new legal code, and abolition of the examination system. Sun Yat-sen and other revolutionaries competed with constitutional monarchists such as Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao to transform the Qing Empire into a modern nation. After the deaths of the Guangxu Emperor and Cixi in 1908, the hardline Manchu court alienated reformers and local elites alike by obstructing social reform. The Wuchang Uprising on 10 October 1911 led to the Xinhai Revolution. General Yuan Shikai negotiated the abdication of Puyi, the last emperor, on 12 February 1912, bringing the dynasty to an end. It was restored briefly but ineffectively in 1917. The fall of the Qing Dynasty led briefly to dictatorial rule under the Republic of China, but ultimately ushered in a period of prolonged instability: the Warlord Era.


Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty or the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing ( [tɕʰíŋ] ), was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China from 1644 to 1912, with a brief restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The multiethnic Qing empire lasted for almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for modern China. It was the fourth largest empire in world history in terms of territorial size in 1790, also making it the largest Chinese dynasty. At a population of 432 million in 1912, it was the world's most populous country. [3]

The dynasty was founded by the House of Aisin-Gioro, a Manchu clan. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing "Banners" which were military-social units that included Manchu, Han, and Mongol elements. Nurhaci united Manchu clans and officially proclaimed the Later Jin dynasty in 1616. His son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of the Liaodong Peninsula and declared a new dynasty, the Qing, in 1636. As Ming control disintegrated, peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng conquered the capital Beijing in 1644. Ming general Wu Sangui refused to serve them, but opened the Shanhai Pass to the Banner Armies led by the regent Prince Dorgon, who defeated the rebels and seized the capital. Dorgon served as Prince regent under the Shunzhi Emperor. Resistance from the Ming loyalists in the south and the Revolt of the Three Feudatories led by Wu Sangui delayed the complete conquest until 1683 under the Kangxi Emperor (1661–1722). The Ten Great Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor from the 1750s to the 1790s extended Qing control into Inner Asia. During the peak of the Qing dynasty, the empire ruled over the entirety of today's Mainland China, Hainan, Taiwan, Mongolia, Outer Manchuria and Outer Northwest China. It also ruled parts of modern day Kazakhstan, almost all of modern day Kyrgyzstan, parts of modern day Pakistan, India, and a small part of modern day Afghanistan. The early Qing rulers maintained their Manchu customs and were patrons of Tibetan Buddhism. They governed using a Confucian style and bureaucratic institutions, retaining the imperial examinations to recruit Han Chinese to work under or in parallel with the Manchu rulers. They also adapted the ideals of the Chinese tributary system in asserting superiority over peripheral countries such as Korea and Vietnam, while annexing neighboring territories such as Tibet and Mongolia.

The dynasty reached its peak in the late 18th century, then gradually declined in the face of challenges from abroad, internal revolts, population growth, disruption of the economy, corruption, and the reluctance of ruling elites to change their mindsets. The population rose to some 400 million, but taxes and government revenues were fixed at a low rate, leading to fiscal crisis. Following the Opium Wars, European powers led by Great Britain imposed "unequal treaties", free trade, extraterritoriality and treaty ports under foreign control. The Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864) and the Dungan Revolt (1862–1877) in Central Asia led to the death of over 20 million people, due to famine, disease, and war. The Tongzhi Restoration of the 1860s brought tepid attempts to modernize the country. The initial gains in the Self-Strengthening Movement were lost in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895, in which the Qing lost its influence over Korea and the possession of Taiwan. New Armies were organized, but the ambitious Hundred Days' Reform of 1898 was turned back in a coup by the conservative Empress Dowager Cixi (1835–1908), who had been the dominant voice in the national government (with one interruption) after 1861. When the Juye Incident by foreign powers triggered the violently anti-foreign and anti-imperialist "Boxers" in 1900, with many foreigners and Christians killed, the foreign powers invaded China. Cixi sided with the Boxers and was decisively defeated by the eight invading powers, leading to the flight of the Imperial Court to Xi'an.

After agreeing to sign the Boxer Protocol, the government initiated unprecedented fiscal and administrative reforms, including elections, a new legal code, and abolition of the examination system. Sun Yat-sen and other revolutionaries competed with constitutional monarchists such as Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao to transform the Qing Empire into a modern nation. After the deaths of the Guangxu Emperor and Cixi in 1908, the hardline Manchu court alienated reformers and local elites alike by obstructing social reform. The Wuchang Uprising on 10 October 1911 led to the Xinhai Revolution. General Yuan Shikai negotiated the abdication of Puyi, the last emperor, on 12 February 1912, bringing the dynasty to an end. It was restored briefly but ineffectively in 1917. The fall of the Qing Dynasty led briefly to dictatorial rule under the Republic of China, but ultimately ushered in a period of prolonged instability: the Warlord Era.


Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty or the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing ( [tɕʰíŋ] ), was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China from 1644 to 1912, with a brief restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The multiethnic Qing empire lasted for almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for modern China. It was the fourth largest empire in world history in terms of territorial size in 1790, also making it the largest Chinese dynasty. At a population of 432 million in 1912, it was the world's most populous country. [3]

The dynasty was founded by the House of Aisin-Gioro, a Manchu clan. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing "Banners" which were military-social units that included Manchu, Han, and Mongol elements. Nurhaci united Manchu clans and officially proclaimed the Later Jin dynasty in 1616. His son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of the Liaodong Peninsula and declared a new dynasty, the Qing, in 1636. As Ming control disintegrated, peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng conquered the capital Beijing in 1644. Ming general Wu Sangui refused to serve them, but opened the Shanhai Pass to the Banner Armies led by the regent Prince Dorgon, who defeated the rebels and seized the capital. Dorgon served as Prince regent under the Shunzhi Emperor. Resistance from the Ming loyalists in the south and the Revolt of the Three Feudatories led by Wu Sangui delayed the complete conquest until 1683 under the Kangxi Emperor (1661–1722). The Ten Great Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor from the 1750s to the 1790s extended Qing control into Inner Asia. During the peak of the Qing dynasty, the empire ruled over the entirety of today's Mainland China, Hainan, Taiwan, Mongolia, Outer Manchuria and Outer Northwest China. It also ruled parts of modern day Kazakhstan, almost all of modern day Kyrgyzstan, parts of modern day Pakistan, India, and a small part of modern day Afghanistan. The early Qing rulers maintained their Manchu customs and were patrons of Tibetan Buddhism. They governed using a Confucian style and bureaucratic institutions, retaining the imperial examinations to recruit Han Chinese to work under or in parallel with the Manchu rulers. They also adapted the ideals of the Chinese tributary system in asserting superiority over peripheral countries such as Korea and Vietnam, while annexing neighboring territories such as Tibet and Mongolia.

The dynasty reached its peak in the late 18th century, then gradually declined in the face of challenges from abroad, internal revolts, population growth, disruption of the economy, corruption, and the reluctance of ruling elites to change their mindsets. The population rose to some 400 million, but taxes and government revenues were fixed at a low rate, leading to fiscal crisis. Following the Opium Wars, European powers led by Great Britain imposed "unequal treaties", free trade, extraterritoriality and treaty ports under foreign control. The Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864) and the Dungan Revolt (1862–1877) in Central Asia led to the death of over 20 million people, due to famine, disease, and war. The Tongzhi Restoration of the 1860s brought tepid attempts to modernize the country. The initial gains in the Self-Strengthening Movement were lost in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895, in which the Qing lost its influence over Korea and the possession of Taiwan. New Armies were organized, but the ambitious Hundred Days' Reform of 1898 was turned back in a coup by the conservative Empress Dowager Cixi (1835–1908), who had been the dominant voice in the national government (with one interruption) after 1861. When the Juye Incident by foreign powers triggered the violently anti-foreign and anti-imperialist "Boxers" in 1900, with many foreigners and Christians killed, the foreign powers invaded China. Cixi sided with the Boxers and was decisively defeated by the eight invading powers, leading to the flight of the Imperial Court to Xi'an.

After agreeing to sign the Boxer Protocol, the government initiated unprecedented fiscal and administrative reforms, including elections, a new legal code, and abolition of the examination system. Sun Yat-sen and other revolutionaries competed with constitutional monarchists such as Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao to transform the Qing Empire into a modern nation. After the deaths of the Guangxu Emperor and Cixi in 1908, the hardline Manchu court alienated reformers and local elites alike by obstructing social reform. The Wuchang Uprising on 10 October 1911 led to the Xinhai Revolution. General Yuan Shikai negotiated the abdication of Puyi, the last emperor, on 12 February 1912, bringing the dynasty to an end. It was restored briefly but ineffectively in 1917. The fall of the Qing Dynasty led briefly to dictatorial rule under the Republic of China, but ultimately ushered in a period of prolonged instability: the Warlord Era.


Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty or the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing ( [tɕʰíŋ] ), was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China from 1644 to 1912, with a brief restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The multiethnic Qing empire lasted for almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for modern China. It was the fourth largest empire in world history in terms of territorial size in 1790, also making it the largest Chinese dynasty. At a population of 432 million in 1912, it was the world's most populous country. [3]

The dynasty was founded by the House of Aisin-Gioro, a Manchu clan. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing "Banners" which were military-social units that included Manchu, Han, and Mongol elements. Nurhaci united Manchu clans and officially proclaimed the Later Jin dynasty in 1616. His son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of the Liaodong Peninsula and declared a new dynasty, the Qing, in 1636. As Ming control disintegrated, peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng conquered the capital Beijing in 1644. Ming general Wu Sangui refused to serve them, but opened the Shanhai Pass to the Banner Armies led by the regent Prince Dorgon, who defeated the rebels and seized the capital. Dorgon served as Prince regent under the Shunzhi Emperor. Resistance from the Ming loyalists in the south and the Revolt of the Three Feudatories led by Wu Sangui delayed the complete conquest until 1683 under the Kangxi Emperor (1661–1722). The Ten Great Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor from the 1750s to the 1790s extended Qing control into Inner Asia. During the peak of the Qing dynasty, the empire ruled over the entirety of today's Mainland China, Hainan, Taiwan, Mongolia, Outer Manchuria and Outer Northwest China. It also ruled parts of modern day Kazakhstan, almost all of modern day Kyrgyzstan, parts of modern day Pakistan, India, and a small part of modern day Afghanistan. The early Qing rulers maintained their Manchu customs and were patrons of Tibetan Buddhism. They governed using a Confucian style and bureaucratic institutions, retaining the imperial examinations to recruit Han Chinese to work under or in parallel with the Manchu rulers. They also adapted the ideals of the Chinese tributary system in asserting superiority over peripheral countries such as Korea and Vietnam, while annexing neighboring territories such as Tibet and Mongolia.

The dynasty reached its peak in the late 18th century, then gradually declined in the face of challenges from abroad, internal revolts, population growth, disruption of the economy, corruption, and the reluctance of ruling elites to change their mindsets. The population rose to some 400 million, but taxes and government revenues were fixed at a low rate, leading to fiscal crisis. Following the Opium Wars, European powers led by Great Britain imposed "unequal treaties", free trade, extraterritoriality and treaty ports under foreign control. The Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864) and the Dungan Revolt (1862–1877) in Central Asia led to the death of over 20 million people, due to famine, disease, and war. The Tongzhi Restoration of the 1860s brought tepid attempts to modernize the country. The initial gains in the Self-Strengthening Movement were lost in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895, in which the Qing lost its influence over Korea and the possession of Taiwan. New Armies were organized, but the ambitious Hundred Days' Reform of 1898 was turned back in a coup by the conservative Empress Dowager Cixi (1835–1908), who had been the dominant voice in the national government (with one interruption) after 1861. When the Juye Incident by foreign powers triggered the violently anti-foreign and anti-imperialist "Boxers" in 1900, with many foreigners and Christians killed, the foreign powers invaded China. Cixi sided with the Boxers and was decisively defeated by the eight invading powers, leading to the flight of the Imperial Court to Xi'an.

After agreeing to sign the Boxer Protocol, the government initiated unprecedented fiscal and administrative reforms, including elections, a new legal code, and abolition of the examination system. Sun Yat-sen and other revolutionaries competed with constitutional monarchists such as Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao to transform the Qing Empire into a modern nation. After the deaths of the Guangxu Emperor and Cixi in 1908, the hardline Manchu court alienated reformers and local elites alike by obstructing social reform. The Wuchang Uprising on 10 October 1911 led to the Xinhai Revolution. General Yuan Shikai negotiated the abdication of Puyi, the last emperor, on 12 February 1912, bringing the dynasty to an end. It was restored briefly but ineffectively in 1917. The fall of the Qing Dynasty led briefly to dictatorial rule under the Republic of China, but ultimately ushered in a period of prolonged instability: the Warlord Era.


Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty or the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing ( [tɕʰíŋ] ), was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China from 1644 to 1912, with a brief restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The multiethnic Qing empire lasted for almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for modern China. It was the fourth largest empire in world history in terms of territorial size in 1790, also making it the largest Chinese dynasty. At a population of 432 million in 1912, it was the world's most populous country. [3]

The dynasty was founded by the House of Aisin-Gioro, a Manchu clan. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing "Banners" which were military-social units that included Manchu, Han, and Mongol elements. Nurhaci united Manchu clans and officially proclaimed the Later Jin dynasty in 1616. His son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of the Liaodong Peninsula and declared a new dynasty, the Qing, in 1636. As Ming control disintegrated, peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng conquered the capital Beijing in 1644. Ming general Wu Sangui refused to serve them, but opened the Shanhai Pass to the Banner Armies led by the regent Prince Dorgon, who defeated the rebels and seized the capital. Dorgon served as Prince regent under the Shunzhi Emperor. Resistance from the Ming loyalists in the south and the Revolt of the Three Feudatories led by Wu Sangui delayed the complete conquest until 1683 under the Kangxi Emperor (1661–1722). The Ten Great Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor from the 1750s to the 1790s extended Qing control into Inner Asia. During the peak of the Qing dynasty, the empire ruled over the entirety of today's Mainland China, Hainan, Taiwan, Mongolia, Outer Manchuria and Outer Northwest China. It also ruled parts of modern day Kazakhstan, almost all of modern day Kyrgyzstan, parts of modern day Pakistan, India, and a small part of modern day Afghanistan. The early Qing rulers maintained their Manchu customs and were patrons of Tibetan Buddhism. They governed using a Confucian style and bureaucratic institutions, retaining the imperial examinations to recruit Han Chinese to work under or in parallel with the Manchu rulers. They also adapted the ideals of the Chinese tributary system in asserting superiority over peripheral countries such as Korea and Vietnam, while annexing neighboring territories such as Tibet and Mongolia.

The dynasty reached its peak in the late 18th century, then gradually declined in the face of challenges from abroad, internal revolts, population growth, disruption of the economy, corruption, and the reluctance of ruling elites to change their mindsets. The population rose to some 400 million, but taxes and government revenues were fixed at a low rate, leading to fiscal crisis. Following the Opium Wars, European powers led by Great Britain imposed "unequal treaties", free trade, extraterritoriality and treaty ports under foreign control. The Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864) and the Dungan Revolt (1862–1877) in Central Asia led to the death of over 20 million people, due to famine, disease, and war. The Tongzhi Restoration of the 1860s brought tepid attempts to modernize the country. The initial gains in the Self-Strengthening Movement were lost in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895, in which the Qing lost its influence over Korea and the possession of Taiwan. New Armies were organized, but the ambitious Hundred Days' Reform of 1898 was turned back in a coup by the conservative Empress Dowager Cixi (1835–1908), who had been the dominant voice in the national government (with one interruption) after 1861. When the Juye Incident by foreign powers triggered the violently anti-foreign and anti-imperialist "Boxers" in 1900, with many foreigners and Christians killed, the foreign powers invaded China. Cixi sided with the Boxers and was decisively defeated by the eight invading powers, leading to the flight of the Imperial Court to Xi'an.

After agreeing to sign the Boxer Protocol, the government initiated unprecedented fiscal and administrative reforms, including elections, a new legal code, and abolition of the examination system. Sun Yat-sen and other revolutionaries competed with constitutional monarchists such as Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao to transform the Qing Empire into a modern nation. After the deaths of the Guangxu Emperor and Cixi in 1908, the hardline Manchu court alienated reformers and local elites alike by obstructing social reform. The Wuchang Uprising on 10 October 1911 led to the Xinhai Revolution. General Yuan Shikai negotiated the abdication of Puyi, the last emperor, on 12 February 1912, bringing the dynasty to an end. It was restored briefly but ineffectively in 1917. The fall of the Qing Dynasty led briefly to dictatorial rule under the Republic of China, but ultimately ushered in a period of prolonged instability: the Warlord Era.


Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty or the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing ( [tɕʰíŋ] ), was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China from 1644 to 1912, with a brief restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The multiethnic Qing empire lasted for almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for modern China. It was the fourth largest empire in world history in terms of territorial size in 1790, also making it the largest Chinese dynasty. At a population of 432 million in 1912, it was the world's most populous country. [3]

The dynasty was founded by the House of Aisin-Gioro, a Manchu clan. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing "Banners" which were military-social units that included Manchu, Han, and Mongol elements. Nurhaci united Manchu clans and officially proclaimed the Later Jin dynasty in 1616. His son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of the Liaodong Peninsula and declared a new dynasty, the Qing, in 1636. As Ming control disintegrated, peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng conquered the capital Beijing in 1644. Ming general Wu Sangui refused to serve them, but opened the Shanhai Pass to the Banner Armies led by the regent Prince Dorgon, who defeated the rebels and seized the capital. Dorgon served as Prince regent under the Shunzhi Emperor. Resistance from the Ming loyalists in the south and the Revolt of the Three Feudatories led by Wu Sangui delayed the complete conquest until 1683 under the Kangxi Emperor (1661–1722). The Ten Great Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor from the 1750s to the 1790s extended Qing control into Inner Asia. During the peak of the Qing dynasty, the empire ruled over the entirety of today's Mainland China, Hainan, Taiwan, Mongolia, Outer Manchuria and Outer Northwest China. It also ruled parts of modern day Kazakhstan, almost all of modern day Kyrgyzstan, parts of modern day Pakistan, India, and a small part of modern day Afghanistan. The early Qing rulers maintained their Manchu customs and were patrons of Tibetan Buddhism. They governed using a Confucian style and bureaucratic institutions, retaining the imperial examinations to recruit Han Chinese to work under or in parallel with the Manchu rulers. They also adapted the ideals of the Chinese tributary system in asserting superiority over peripheral countries such as Korea and Vietnam, while annexing neighboring territories such as Tibet and Mongolia.

The dynasty reached its peak in the late 18th century, then gradually declined in the face of challenges from abroad, internal revolts, population growth, disruption of the economy, corruption, and the reluctance of ruling elites to change their mindsets. The population rose to some 400 million, but taxes and government revenues were fixed at a low rate, leading to fiscal crisis. Following the Opium Wars, European powers led by Great Britain imposed "unequal treaties", free trade, extraterritoriality and treaty ports under foreign control. The Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864) and the Dungan Revolt (1862–1877) in Central Asia led to the death of over 20 million people, due to famine, disease, and war. The Tongzhi Restoration of the 1860s brought tepid attempts to modernize the country. The initial gains in the Self-Strengthening Movement were lost in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895, in which the Qing lost its influence over Korea and the possession of Taiwan. New Armies were organized, but the ambitious Hundred Days' Reform of 1898 was turned back in a coup by the conservative Empress Dowager Cixi (1835–1908), who had been the dominant voice in the national government (with one interruption) after 1861. When the Juye Incident by foreign powers triggered the violently anti-foreign and anti-imperialist "Boxers" in 1900, with many foreigners and Christians killed, the foreign powers invaded China. Cixi sided with the Boxers and was decisively defeated by the eight invading powers, leading to the flight of the Imperial Court to Xi'an.

After agreeing to sign the Boxer Protocol, the government initiated unprecedented fiscal and administrative reforms, including elections, a new legal code, and abolition of the examination system. Sun Yat-sen and other revolutionaries competed with constitutional monarchists such as Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao to transform the Qing Empire into a modern nation. After the deaths of the Guangxu Emperor and Cixi in 1908, the hardline Manchu court alienated reformers and local elites alike by obstructing social reform. The Wuchang Uprising on 10 October 1911 led to the Xinhai Revolution. General Yuan Shikai negotiated the abdication of Puyi, the last emperor, on 12 February 1912, bringing the dynasty to an end. It was restored briefly but ineffectively in 1917. The fall of the Qing Dynasty led briefly to dictatorial rule under the Republic of China, but ultimately ushered in a period of prolonged instability: the Warlord Era.


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