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Mushroom Islands with Milk Core

Mushroom Islands with Milk Core

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The mushrooms are cleaned, washed, the stalks are removed and left to drain and dry.

Smoked pastrami is cut into narrow and long strips.

Take a mushroom hat, put 1/2 teaspoon of Ceva Fin cheese in the tail and 2 strips of pastrami diagonally.

Place a piece of Milk Core on top and press lightly to stand.

Put in a pan greased with butter and then make all the mushrooms the same and put in the pan.

Put the tray in the preheated oven for 25-30 minutes until the mushrooms are done and the Milk Core is browned a little.

Beat eggs with 2 tablespoons milk, finely chopped dill, grated cheese, salt and pepper.

Grease a ceramic pan with a little butter and pour eggs into it.

Put one mushroom (island) in the pan next to another mushroom with a distance between them.

I could fit half of it (I made two omelettes).

Put the pan in the oven for 8-10 minutes until the omelet is ready.

Remove from the oven and serve.

It is very good with tomatoes, cucumbers and green onions.

Good appetite!

Eugenics of the house

Eugenics of the house

Eugenii de casa


Chocolate cream

  • 4 tablespoons sm & acircnt & acircnă
  • 100 g ground almonds
  • 1 cup powdered sugar
  • peel from a blade
  • 300 g butter
  • 300 g sugar
  • 1 pinch of salt
  • 1 sachet of vanilla sugar
  • 8 pieces of yolks
  • 300 g flour

For Eugenia biscuits

Method of preparation

Sift the flour into a bowl and add the soft butter, egg yolks, salt, lemon zest, vanilla sugar, sifted flour and ground almonds. Mix lightly with a spoon and if the dough is too thick, soften it with sour cream.
Knead well and leave to cool. After it has cooled, take it out, spread it with a rolling pin and make biscuits with special shapes.
Arrange the tray lined with paper and bake at 160 ° C.

Leave to cool and prepare the chocolate cream.

Mix the sugar with the milk, cocoa, eggs in a saucepan, boil and set aside. Rub the butter with rum essence, lemon juice and add the chocolate sauce.

Grease the biscuits with chocolate cream and stick two by two.

Cookbook: Mushroom pudding with Bechamel sauce

Recipe ingredients: flour, butter, milk, mushrooms, Telemea cheese, eggs, dill, parsley, salt, pepper.

Mushrooms mixed with grated cheese, seasoned and then dressed in the fluffy coating of a beautifully browned pudding in the oven. a culinary temptation quite easy to prepare.

Ingredients: 100 g flour, 100 g butter, 250 ml milk, 250 g mushrooms (any variety), 100 g Telemea cheese, cheese or Parmesan, 4 - 5 eggs, dill, parsley, salt, a pinch of pepper.

Preparation: The mushrooms, well washed and squeezed a little, are passed through the mincer. In a 3 l bowl placed on the fire, put the butter and flour that are mixed to heat for a minute without coloring. Then quench with the hot milk added gradually, mixing well, so as not to form lumps. Take the bowl off the heat, immediately put the mushrooms, together with the juice they left, the finely chopped dill and parsley leaves and pepper. When the sauce is almost cold, add the yolks and grated cheese and salt. The beaten egg whites are lightly mixed with the composition, only by overturning and then discarded in a 2 l pan, prepared in advance. Bake for 40-50 minutes in the pan with hot water, put in time in the well-heated oven. Serve sprinkled with parmesan or cheese.

Recipe: cookies from cookies.

For this Christmas, in addition to muffins and other types of sweets that I will prepare, I thought of trying something else. I had seen a picture on the internet, so I thought I would make some Christmas tree-shaped cookies. They are easy to make and effective.

250 ml butter - a cup - I melted it

120 ml sugar - (1/2 cup sugar)

2 sachets of vanilla sugar

For the "binder" between them I used pudding. It seemed easier and I had this in the house at the moment, but you can use any cream.

In a large bowl, mix the butter with the sugar (if you haven't melted it before, mix at low speed until the sugar melts, then at high speed until it becomes creamy). Separately mix at low speed the egg with the vanilla essence. Add to the previous composition and mix. In a bowl, mix the flour with the baking powder and salt with a fork. Gradually incorporate into the previously mixed composition, stirring with a spatula. This results in a dough that is divided into four and each piece of dough is flattened into discs. Fold in plastic wrap and put in the freezer for half an hour. After 30 minutes, take them out and spread them on the plate sprinkled with flour. Spread a suitable sheet (neither thin nor thick) and use cutters for the shape.

Place in a tray with baking paper in the preheated oven at 180 ° C. Keep for about 10 minutes, until slightly golden.

After leaving to cool, prepare the pudding according to the recipe on the back of the envelope. The cookies are placed according to size: the base is the largest cookie, pudding is added, the next cookie in size, and pudding and so on until we have some beautiful fir trees. After the pudding cools down a little, sprinkle powdered sugar on top. Store in the refrigerator until served.

That's about my recipe for fir-shaped cookies. I tried white cookies with chocolate pudding, but at Christmas I will also make cookies with cocoa (added in the composition) and pudding or vanilla cream. You can also use food coloring, so a white cream can turn green like fir satin.

Ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet: Health benefits and menu ideas for a week

The ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet is perhaps the easiest way to switch to a vegetarian diet, whether it's a long-term choice or you just want to try to give up meat for a while, to see how you feel. Due to its diversity and permissiveness, this diet is very easy to maintain, and the richness of food combinations will not let you get bored.

Compared to the pesco-vegetarian and vegan sisters, this diet has the great advantage of the vital nutrient for the body - protein, which contains all the necessary amino acids in our diet and which builds and strengthens muscle mass, actively contributing to maintaining optimal weight.

Those who make the ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet a lifestyle are protected from nutritional deficiencies faced by followers of veganism (deficiency of vitamin B12, iron, calcium, zinc), whose body is deprived of the benefits of animal products. Because, nutritionists do not blame this diet, they even recommend it, provided you are not growing.

The ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet is recommended for those who want to lose weight more easily, because the calcium in dairy products causes the body to burn fat, maintaining the metabolic rate at an optimal level. Thus, the followers of this diet will lose 20% more fat at the same number of calories consumed, compared to people who do not consume dairy at all.

egg contains a long list of vitamins and minerals, being among the most valuable iron, iodine, Vitamin B12, Vitamin A, Omega 3. It is also the only food that contains Vitamin B7 (biotin), which plays a crucial role in the development of the brain and the proper functioning of the nervous system, and the only food that contains Vitamin D., which ensures the health of the skeletal system.

Milk and dairy products they bring a substantial contribution to the body of protein, calcium, magnesium, folic acid, vitamins B1, B2, B6, B 12 and vitamins A, D, E. It is best to eat defatted or partially defatted variants, which have less saturated fat and cholesterol, but which retain their amounts of calcium and other vitamins and minerals.

Among dairy products, the one that has gained star status is yogurt, due to the probiotics it contains, those healthy bacteria that stimulate the immune system, promote intestinal transit and reduce the risk of colon cancer. One small yogurt a day infuriates an adult 50% from the daily requirement of phosphorus and 40% of the recommended amount of calcium. They are just as healthy kefir, sana and whipped milk, considered live foods.

Have I convinced you of the benefits of the ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet? Here are some quick recipe ideas inspired by Romanian and international cuisine, for a complete menu, which you can test for a week:

Breakfast: A slice of black toast greased with a little butter, a boiled egg and a glass of fresh orange juice.

Lunch: A Greek salad - tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, onions, olives, feta cheese, wrapped in the flavors of extra virgin olive oil (a tablespoon), balsamic vinegar (a teaspoon) and sprinkled with pepper and oregano.

Snack: Brie cheese with figs and nuts

Dinner: Pasta with pumpkin, tomatoes and parmesan - boil your favorite pasta together with a little salt separately, while simmering in a saucepan with non-stick interior, ceramic or Teflon, 2-3 diced zucchini with 2-3 finely chopped Kapia peppers and two tablespoons of olive oil. Add, after the vegetables have softened, the contents of a box of peeled diced tomatoes, a head of crushed garlic, salt and pepper. Wait another 5 minutes, then you can mix the pumpkin sauce with the pasta. Add a little grated Parmesan cheese to the plate and you will have a light and very tasty dinner.

Breakfast: Smoothie from a glass of milk, a banana, some frozen berries (raspberries, blackberries, blueberries) and a handful of oatmeal. Mix them all in a blender and enjoy an aromatic and unexpectedly full drink.

Lunch: Cream of potato soup with leeks & # 8211 you need a sprig of leek (white side only), a small onion, 250 grams of potatoes, a tablespoon of butter, parsley, black pepper. Melt the butter on the fire in a non-stick pan, add the sliced ​​leeks, chopped onion and diced potatoes, stir for 5 minutes, then add 300 ml of water and let it boil for 15 minutes. Pass the soup in a blender with a little salt, then sprinkle with pepper and parsley.

Snack: Roquefort cheese with a pear

Dinner: MBS muffins - This dish is actually the famous polenta with cheese and cream, with three small variations. Boil the cornmeal as usual, and separately soak the diced mushrooms on the fire. Add, when the polenta is almost ready, cheese, grated cheese, cream and mushrooms. Mix, then put the composition in muffin tins and leave in the oven for 15 minutes. Sounds delicious, doesn't it?

Breakfast: Natural yogurt in which you add walnut kernels, peeled hemp seeds and goji.

Lunch: Cauliflower souffle - a portion is made very easily, with sauce from a teaspoon of flour, a cup of milk, a cube of butter and two tablespoons of grated Parmesan, which floods the golden cauliflower in the oven in a small bowl of yena.

Snack: A kefir and a small handful of cashews.

Dinner: Wild rice, with spinach and orange salad - You can cook the rice simply, only with water, salt and butter, or by adding vegetables, according to your preferences. At this meal, the salad will be the star. Heat 4 tablespoons of oil in the pan and brown about 25 grams of crushed almonds. Meanwhile, mix the spinach leaves with thin slices of three oranges, a red onion cut into rings, adding a red wine vinegar sauce, grape seed oil and a teaspoon of sugar. Sprinkle with almonds and enjoy the delicate taste.

Breakfast: Rice with milk, along with a tablespoon of strawberry jam.

Lunch: Hummus and red cabbage salad with red onions, raisins and lemon.

Snack: Caprese salad, mozzarella cheese, tomatoes and basil.

Dinner: Skewers with mushrooms, peppers, tomatoes, onions and halloumi cheese, the irresistible traditional Cypriot cheese.

Breakfast: Two bananas cut in half lengthwise, greased with peanut butter, along with a glass of cocoa milk.

Lunch: Guacamole paste with two triangles of foccacia with cheese.

Snack: Healthy and dried fruit, along with a small handful of pumpkin seeds.

Dinner: Werewolf soup in which you added a raw egg after you put out the fire. The white egg strips will clear the soup and give it the consistency it needs.

Breakfast: On weekends you have more time in the morning, so you can prepare this delicious vegetarian burger with egg, cheese, avocado, bell pepper, lettuce and yogurt sauce (yogurt with a teaspoon of mustard, salt and pepper).

Lunch: Pots of vegetables with zucchini, eggplant, tomatoes, celery, potatoes, onions and lots of green parsley. Do not forget what is the most important secret of the pot: do not put water! The vegetables have enough and thus allow the various flavors to intertwine, for an intense and authentic taste.

Snack: Two handfuls of popcorn with cheese sauce.

Dinner: Cream-cheese soup with white asparagus - pamper your senses with this delicacy inspired by French cuisine: you need 4-5 stalks of white asparagus, a potato, an onion and 250 grams of ripened cheese. Saute the vegetables in a little oil, then add a liter of water and let them boil. Mix the whole composition in a blender, then put it back in the pan, over low heat, gradually adding the cheese, giving it time to melt. Sprinkle red pepper when you put the soup on the plate, before you enjoy an extraordinary and comforting taste.

Breakfast: Frittata with mushrooms - is a kind of omelet, but a little more elaborate and prepared in the oven. You need two eggs, a tablespoon of sour cream, a cube of butter, a teaspoon of oil, a pepper, an onion, 100 grams of mushrooms, a few cherry tomatoes and, of course, dill and parsley.

Lunch: Cheddar Pea Cream Soup - Boil an onion, a bag of frozen peas, a potato and a little celery in a liter of water. When ready, mix everything in a blender with a cube of butter. Sprinkle grated chedar cheese and chilli on the plate. The combination of tastes and textures will conquer you forever.

Snack: Mango puree - pass with the vertical mixer a mango and a banana with a little milk. You will immediately get a healthy and tasty snack.

Dinner: Parmigiano with eggplant - a large eggplant cut into slices, rolled in egg and a mixture of 50 grams of flour with a little oregano, put in the pan in two tablespoons of oil, on each side, until the slices turn golden. Put in a tray and sprinkle over a quarter of a liter of tomato juice, mozzarella and parmesan. Keep the wonder in the oven for another 10 minutes, then let yourself be soaked in the Mediterranean flavors.

Fairy Tales.

Traditional products, dearly created, 100% natural, authentic Moldovan!

Moldovan zacusca with mushrooms

And if it's still the beginning of autumn and it's the time of the zacustas, these days we have prepared another network of zacusca, a new assortment, with mushrooms, that's right, in the longing for the long-awaited ghebe this year & # 8230

The preparation of the vegetables and the way of working took place exactly as at eggplant,with the exception that, in addition to the other ingredients, & # 8220delicious & # 8221 mushrooms were also included in the composition. Champignon.

What came out in the end? A wonderful zacusca, sweet and tasty, only good to spread on a slice of homemade bread fresh out of the oven & # 8230.

Of course it is waiting for you to enjoy it boutique our !


Do you have a zacusca like this for sale? Thank you!

Yes, the stock will be renewed next week! Just follow the online store!

Mushrooms with raw mayonnaise

I remember a New Year's Eve spent together in 1992, I think. c & acircnd all day we cooked together and starved to save ourselves for the big night!

And when we got to sit down at the table, I ate so many tin mushrooms with the smell of tin, in combination with mayonnaise with a lot of oil, I still don't know that I was sick for days! A & icircnceput de an scr & acircntit.

For you, my dear Monica, for me and for many other nostalgics, I have reinvented the "mayonnaise mushrooms" in a healthier way. But beware: even in this combination you can't eat in the middle of the night :)

Preparation time: 15 minutes


the juice of half a lemon & acircie

a pinch of turmeric for color and more.

a teaspoon of phsyllium

6 - 7 fresh shiitake mushrooms

Turn into a fine mayonnaise and blender, then add the finely chopped mushrooms and cucumbers!

Paula Seling has been healthier since she ate vegan

"One of the best decisions about my health was to give up meat of any kind and, more recently, all animal products. I feel perfect, I eat more than 60% of the meals I eat raw and I have never felt fuller. It's not an easy process, but it helped that I got used to eating a big salad at every meal. And the documentaries "What the Health" and "Forkes over Knives" as well as the book "Study of China" made me understand more. I addressed a nutritionist who explained to me, as he says in the documentary, that our ‘need’ for animal protein is a myth and that, in the omnivorous diet, we often lack fiber, vitamins, coming from plants. Modern man consumes too little plants and too much meat, eggs, milk ", explained Paula Seling on her Instagram page


The common ancestor of fungi and animals was probably a flagellated unicellular organism that lived more than a billion years ago. A discovery in an 850-million-year-old slate in Canada is sometimes interpreted as a mushroom fossil. Alleged discoveries in China and Australia, 1.5 billion years old, have yet to be confirmed as fungi. The first largely undisputed discoveries date from the Ordovician geological period and can be attributed to arboreal mycorrhizal fungi. Fossil fungi have also been found in amber, among other things, on well-known coal deposits in Scotland and England, in the late Triassic, carnivorous in Germany, and in remarkable biodiversity in Cretaceous and Tertiary Canadian and Baltic Canadian amber. In some of these discoveries are found mushrooms that attacked termites and nematodes, being closed by the resin together with their hosts. [1] [2] [3]

While the vast majority of fungi that appear today no longer develop flagella, flagellate spores or gametes appear during the reproduction of the species in the cluster. Chytridiomycota. The fungi probably left the water before the plants and colonized the land surface. Since the first known terrestrial plants did not yet have real roots, but obviously living in symbiosis with mycorrhizal arboreal fungi from the Glomeromycota division, it is assumed that these fungi made it hardly possible for the plants to colonize this land. Successful passage of plants would not have been possible without the symbiosis with sponges. [4]

Systematic Modification

About 100,000 species are known in the Fungi Kingdom. According to current estimates (2017), however, there are between 2.2 and 3.8 million of them. [5] The Kingdom is divided as follows: [6]

  • Class I: Phycomycota
  • Class II: Eumycota
    • Subclass 1: Ascomycota
      • Section a: Protoascomycetes sin. Saccharomycetales
      • Section b: Euascomycetes (Plectascales, Pseudosphaeriales, Sphaeriales, Pezizales)
      • Section a: Holobasidiomycetes
      • Section b: Phragmobasidiomycetes sin. Heterobasidiomycetes (Uredinales, Ustilaginales)

      Ontogenesis Modification

      Due to the lack of chromatophores, mushrooms are not suitable for assimilation.

      Some live as parasites or saprophytes on land or in freshwater, very rarely in the sea. Some species are not only heterotrophic for oxygen and nitrogen, but also for other active substances. Their fruiting body consists largely of hose-shaped branched cells, which often contain more than one haploid nucleus. Hyphae (walls, thin filaments) are composed mainly of chitin, only rarely of cellulose. The sum of the hyphae is called mycelium. Some single-celled organisms in the cluster Phycomycota, especially of Ascomycota, does not form mycelium. Eukaryotes Myxogastria sin. Myxomycetes, plasmodial viscous fungi, possess vegetative bodies formed completely differently. More or less all varieties can be grown.

      Another part practices a form of symbiosis between them and plants in which a fungus comes in contact with the fine root system of a plant, called mycorrhiza. Here there are varieties with transversely septate hyphae like others, where this differentiation is missing. In aseptic forms, the entire mycelium can be viewed as a single multi-nuclear cell (syncytium). Also the septate forms of Ascomycetes and many Imperfect fungi they must be seen as sincere. Transverse walls are formed in these organisms only for the separation of the reproductive organs. The transverse walls retain a central cell nucleus of variable size due to premature cessation of wall synthesis by incarnating centripetal. This pore allows not only a plasma contact of neighboring cells, but also the crossing of cell nuclei like other cellular organs. Only in Basiomycetes is there a classification into true cells, comparable to those of higher plants. The hyphae of the upper fungi can materialize during the formation of the fruiting body in a quasi-tissue. These species cannot be grown in general. [6]

      General characteristics of the Eumycota twig in brief Modification

      • Eukaryotic organisms
      • most are multicellular
      • heterotrophic organisms
      • populates any environment
      • nemotile
      • continuous growth
      • the presence of the cell wall
      • the cell membrane (when present) is made up of mycocellulose or mycosin
      • the presence of chitin, callus, etc. within the cell wall are completely missing
      • urea formation
      • multiplication by spores containing reserve substances: glycogen and fat droplets.

      Ultrastructure Modification

      To most representatives of the kingdom fungous the structure of the body is somewhat similar. Here are some common features:

      Fungi reproduce both asexually and sexually.

      Asexual reproduction Change

      In the case of fungi, asexual (vegetative) reproduction is very common. Multiplication does not occur through the formation of sex cells, but through the formation of agametes (spores that form a new organism without fusion with another cell) that some species even lack. These sponges are called Imperfect fungi. There are different types of spores, for example: [6] [7] [8]

      • Arthrospores (powdery mildew): are caused by the rupture of hyphae in individual cells.
      • Ascospores: are vessels in the form of an elongated sac, in which the meiosis of fungi takes place and in which haploid ascospores are formed, which in turn represent a form of spread to some types of fungi. Sporulation is often necessary to quickly generate offspring, for example to overcome periods of hunger.
      • Blastospores: form as protuberances at the tips of the hyphae or in other positions and mature from the base. It separates without the formation of septa. If blastospores form on minor axes, they are called sympodiospores.
      • Chlamydospores: immobile, with coarse walls, intercalation develops (restricted to certain areas) or by swelling of the hyphae heads, both inside the hyphae and through the so-called germination. Terrestrial and aquatic fungi can develop them under unfavorable living conditions.
      • Conidiospores: by constriction at the tip of certain fungal hyphae, the so-called conidiophores are formed, from which the conidiospores are subsequently released. They are exospores.
      • Porospores: with thick walls are formed individually or at the vertices through pores in the cell wall of the hypora carrying spores and can also be formed as chains that grow from the base to the tip.
      • Sporangiospores: they form endogenously in special hyphae, so-called sporangia (in Phycomycota), sac-like fruit containers, inside which sporangiospores develop.
      • Zoospores: are found only in aquatic fungi, being flagellated spores that develop endogenously in zoosporangia.

      Sexual reproduction Change

      The principle of sexual reproduction that does not produce identical offspring, unlike asexual reproduction, is the formation of spores (meiospores) genetically new compounds after cell fusion (plasmogamy), nuclear fusion (karyogamy) and cell division (meiosis).

      Mushrooms can form conidia with sexual spores. They are usually haploid, so they have only one simple set of chromosomes in their cell nuclei and only go through a short diploid phase with two sets of chromosomes during sexual reproduction. Two spores completely merge (including karyogamy, plasmogamy) and form a new diploid cell. Between them there is a phase with two nuclei in the fungi Basidiomycota and most fungi Ascomycota which is not known to other living things. In this phase, each cell contains two haploid nuclei of different "parental" origin. These processes are also possible alternatively, so that fungi can pass between haploid and diploid organisms, as well as between sexual and asexual reproduction. The course of sexual processes differs greatly in the different systematic departments of the fungi. Such varieties are called Perfect fungi. [9] [10]

      Fungus fungi Mucoromycota and Zoopagomycota they do not form fruiting bodies, but exist only as multi-nuclear mycelium. In them, the neighboring hyphae emit extensions, called gametangii, which combine in the shape of a yoke. The point of contact then swells, the separating cell walls dissolve and the multi-nuclear fusion product is isolated from the two gametangs by partitions. The diploid phase is achieved by fusing cell nuclei in pairs. [11] [12]

      Finally, it should be noted that the formation of fruiting bodies is associated with a considerable increase in metabolic activity, because they form considerably more proteins and nucleic acids than in mycelium and due to this, increased energy consumption is required, which is it also reflects in a corresponding increase in oxygen consumption. [13]

      Outline of reproduction types (possible) Change

      Mushrooms act as a decomposer of dead organic materials (saprophytes), feed as parasites on other living things or live in a reciprocal (mutualistic) symbiosis with plants (mycorrhiza) or together with blue-green algae (lichens). Due to the very efficient distribution of spores, they are practically everywhere where a suitable substrate is available and can generally use a very wide range of food sources. [14]

      • Saprophytes: there are on the one hand species that grow on rich soil, leaves, garbage, horse manure, etc. (which they feed on), on the other hand sponges that can break down and use lignin almost exclusively. They are also the most important users in the breakdown of cellulose, hemicellulose and keratin. Together with bacteria and small animal organisms, they form humus from organic waste. The importance of fungi in the degradation of lignin and especially of the very lignin-rich trunks of dead trees is highlighted in several ways. Only fungi, especially certain varieties of the Basidiomycota cluster, which are grouped under the name "white rot fungi" (a term used to describe the decomposition of wood by fungi, when they mainly decompose brown lignin and remain colorless cellulose), are able to decompose. effectively larger pieces of dead wood. These organic nutrients are converted to inorganic substances, such as carbon dioxide or nitrates. Unlike bacteria, some of which can capitalize to a limited extent on available products of already partially degraded lignin, fungi with their hyphae actively enter the wood, having the enzymes needed for complicated and energy-intensive degradation. Oxygen is absolutely necessary for this degradation process. Where this is not the case, the wood is stored for a long time, for example in peat bogs) and is finally transformed into coal for long geological periods. [15] [16]
      • Parasites: when a fungus parasitizes a plant, it enters its cells with specialized hyphae, which allow the parasite to enter its host tissues and absorb nutrients from them (eg species such as Armillariella on softwoods). They penetrate the cell wall, but leave the cell membrane intact (otherwise the cell plasma would escape and the host cell would die), wrapping it only so that it is now surrounded by a double membrane. This process allows the removal of nutrients from the plasma of the host cell. Parasitic fungi are often specialized for certain host organisms. To find the right ones, they developed different methods. First of all, they produce large amounts of spores, thus increasing the chance that some of them will reach compatible host plants. Fungi out of order Weather in Pucciniales (rust fungi) for example infest mainly stems and leaves. They have a complex life cycle, which often includes changing hosts. A number of representatives are of economic importance because they affect agricultural crops (e.g. Puccinia graminis on cereals, Puccinia striiformis on wheat or Melampsorella caryophyllacearum on silver fir). Other species have learned to spread effectively through insects that visit host plants. Thus, certain yeasts that live in nectar are transported from flower to flower. Spores Monilinia fructigena, the causative agent of fruit rot of fruit trees, are spread by wasps, which at the same time provide access to the fungus by gnawing the fruit. Species of the order Ustilaginales they can live saprophytically in the soil for years without host plants. An example is Ustilago maydis (corn fire): up to 12 years later, infectious mycelium was found in a field affected by it that immediately parasitizes freshly sown plants again. [17] [18] Animals and humans can also suffer from fungal infections when they come in contact with fungal spores of the order Dermatophytes, such as Microsporum canis infesting mainly dogs and cats (20%), rarely humans [19] or the well-known athlete's foot (Tinea pedis). [20]
      • Mycorrhizans: are included in many families of large fungi of the Basidiomycota cluster (eg Amanitaceae, Boletaceae, Cantharellaceae, Russulaceae, Suillaceae) where the mycelium of the fungus wraps around the roots of the trees as a mycelial sheath, penetrating not into the bark, but also into the bark. . But in much larger numbers there are very small fungi in the Glomeromycota division that form arboreal mycorrhizal associations, penetrating the cells of the bark. However, they are the most valuable mushrooms for nature. They form mycorrhizal associations with plants, transferring water and various inorganic substances, especially phosphates and minerals, to the roots, as the fine mycelium penetrates the soil closer than the suction roots could, receiving in turn carbohydrates, especially sugar, which it produces the plant through photosynthesis. Fungi could not live without this symbiosis because they are not able to produce organic matter. But in turn, some plants would survive very hard without the help of these fungi. There is a very close contact between the roots of the sponges and the roots of the trees. This better nutrition is especially noticeable in very poor soils. As for the tree fungi, it should be mentioned that sometimes they can prevent the growth of the plant. [21] [22]

      Orchids are an extreme case, many of which are already dependent on their fungal symbiotic partners when their seeds germinate under natural conditions. Some orchids, for example Neottia nidus-avis, do not contain chlorophyll and therefore cannot photosynthesize, but get all the nutrients from the fungus, which they thus parasitize. [2. 3]

      • Lichens: they have a special position. They are fungi that harbor unicellular blue-green algae as symbionts and are therefore photoautotrophic, ie they are not dependent on external food sources due to the photosynthesis of their symbionts. Unlike any of the partners alone, they can colonize extreme habitats. However, the mushrooms in question are difficult to viable without their symbionts, while the latter can thrive and isolate. For lichens, the advantage of symbiosis is that a much wider range of habitats opens up for them. [24]
      • Specifications

      - Marine and xerophilous species

      Mushrooms, especially from the Ascomycota cluster, are also widespread in marine habitats, ie in an extremely saline environment, being parasitic on plants and animals from the sea. They combat high osmotic pressure by properly enriching polyols (higher alcohols), mainly glycerin, but also mannitol and arabitol in the hyphae. The situation is similar to xerophilous molds and yeasts (extremophilic organisms that can live and reproduce in conditions with low water availability). They grow, for example, which can grow on pickled herring or marmalade. [25]

      Most fungi are aerobic organisms. But some are anaerobic, they can either manage temporarily without oxygen (optional anaerobic), for example yeasts that ferment under these conditions, living on sugar (for them much more efficient than with aerobic respiration), or even lost the ability to use it at all (mandatory anaerobic) as species of the family Neocallimastigaceae, which live in the rumen of ruminants being specialized in the use of cellulose. [26]

      Mushrooms can populate almost any living environment, subject to certain conditions, valid for most terrestrial species:

      • the presence of the organic substrate
      • lack of too much brightness
      • high temperature
      • enough moisture.

      For humans, fungi play both a positive and a negative role. See also below under "external links".

      There are species that are easy to identify, but others, where confusion is possible and sometimes with a fatal result. Some examples in detail:

      - The order Agaricales it is the most dangerous. Thus lethal species of the genus postponed (Amanita phalloides, Amanita verna, Amanita virosa) respectively quite toxic as Amanita gemmata, Amanita pantherina) or those of the kind Clitocybe with for example Clitocybe dealbata (+), Clitocybe fragrans, Clitocybe rivulosa (+) such as those in the genre Cortinarius (Cortinarius cinnamomeus, Cortinarius gentilis (+), Cortinarius orellanus (+), Cortinarius rubellus (+) or Cortinarius traganus), often have a great resemblance to edible varieties. Varieties of the genus Inocybe are all severely poisonous, while those of Gomphidius and family sponges Hygrophoraceae with all edibles. In addition, species declared edible are still collected in older mycological books, which in the meantime have proved as deadly as possible, such as Paxillus involutus or Equestrian tricholoma. Galerina marginata caused quite a few lethal poisons by confusing it with e.g. Flammulina velutipes or Kuehneromyces mutabilis, as and Pleurocybella porrigens.

      - The order Bulletins includes species with white to yellowish pores (greenish-yellow) and others with reddish to red pores. In those with open pores there are no toxic smiles, but some are inedible due to the bitter taste (Boletus calopus, Boletus radicans, Tylopilus felleus). In those with red pores a confusion of edible species with poisonous ones, but not lethal, is quite slight, as for example with Boletus lupinus, Boletus rhodoxanthus or Boletus satanas).

      - The order Cantharellales does not know inedible or even toxic mushrooms.

      - The order Polyporales knows mostly edible mushrooms. Some species cannot be eaten, being bitter or hard.

      - The order Russulales has its own rules. For the genres Lactarius, Lactifluus and Russula it matters, that all sponges without an unpleasant odor such as a sharp or inconvenient taste are edible. Even some of those hot ones could be eaten. [27] [28]

      - The twig Ascomycota knows very toxic mold fungi (Hypomyces chrysospermus, Serpula lacrymans), but also for example very useful yeast. As for families with larger mushrooms it can be said that Morchellaceae-they are all edible, but Helvellaceae-they have poisonous or suspicious species among them, not always easy to identify, being thus only something for connoisseurs.

      You can see more details on the description page of the mushrooms.

      These mushrooms contain psychotropic substances such as psilocybin, psilocin, muscimol or ergot. The best known are psilocybin-containing fungi. Their effects are sometimes compared to those of LSD. These include exotic species, such as Psilocybe cubensis but also native species, such as Mycena pura, Pluteus salicinus or Psilocybe semilanceata. Amanita muscaria and Amanita regalis contain ibotenic acid and the toxic and psychotropic muscimol derivative, much more effective in the dry stage. Both substances are classified as delusional. [29] In addition to other toxic substances, Claviceps purpurea it also contains ergot. [30] Psychoactive mushrooms have had and still have a spiritual significance as entheogenic substances for various indigenous peoples. [31] Inexperienced mushroom pickers risk picking mushrooms that contain these substances. Unfortunately, many young people also experiment with these sponges without thinking about the harmful effects on health.

      In the world, there are over 100 species of mushrooms used for therapeutic purposes, especially in China and Japan. They contain proteins, amino acids, vitamins, minerals and many other active microelements, becoming adjuvant agents in the complementary therapies of many diseases. [32] In Europe and North America, mushrooms have also been used for medicinal purposes since the early twentieth century. Drugs like the antibiotic penicillin are made from mushrooms. Other fungal metabolites lower cholesterol or help with malaria (Metarhizium pingshaense genetically engineered). [33]

      - A large role is played by the mass cultivation of large edible saprophytic and parasitic fungi. The best known are Agaricus bisporus, Auricularia auricula-judae, Lentinula edodes, sin. Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus. [34] .

      - Among single-celled mushrooms, sugar yeasts of the genus Saccharomyces, especially baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, But and Saccharomyces bayanus, Saccharomyces ellipsoides and Saccharomyces uvarum (there are over 1,500 species), are the best known mushrooms useful in this field. They produce alcohol and carbon dioxide by alcoholic fermentation and are used to bake a dough, in the preparation of beer, in the production of wine, in other alcoholic beverages such as certain (also low-alcohol) products of curdled milk (eg kefir). . [35] Yeast used today is usually grown, produced biotechnologically, but the one that lives naturally on the surface of grapes is still used in many cases, especially in wine production. In addition to lactic acid bacteria, the dough used in baking bread also contains yeast. [36] Mold fungus Botrytis cinerea it also plays a role in wine production. In cool, humid autumn weather, it causes rot on the grains, which causes the grain to pierce the skin. Later, they lose water, leaving behind a higher percentage of solids, such as sugars, fruit acids and minerals, resulting in a more concentrated and intense final product. Yquem Castle is the only Premier Cru Supérieur, largely due to the susceptibility of the vineyard to the so-called noble rot. [37] On the other hand, the fungus is very harmful to, for example, strawberries or tomatoes. [38]

      - Many types of mold (Penicillium candidum, Penicillium camemberti, Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium glaucum etc.) play an important role in the maturation process of dairy products, especially sour dairy products and cheeses (eg Blue Stilton, Gorgonzola, Roquefort, infested with blue mold or Camembert and Brie cheese with white) . [39] [40] On the contrary, the rot of bread Rhizopus stolonifer which harms and for example sweet potatoes strawberries, papaya, plums or tomatoes is very toxic to humans and animals. [41]

      The largest fasting are cultivated saprophytic fungi and parasites. Agaricus bisporus is the most important edible sponge grown worldwide. It was first raised in Paris by Olivier de Serres (1539-1619) during the reign of King Louis XIII of France. They followed Agaricus bitorquis, which performs stronger meat such as brown mushroom, derived from Agaricus silvaticus. [42] [43] Agaricus subrufescens sin. Agaricus blazei is a mushroom grown in the Far East and South America due to its famous medicinal properties, which have been attributed to it since ancient times, including against cancer. It is used in alternative medicine. [44] But scientific evidence is lacking to this day. [45] Worldwide, about 1.5 million tons of mushrooms have been produced annually (2011). At European level, about 60% of this quantity is produced, ie around 900,000 tonnes, with the main mushroom-producing countries being France, Poland, Italy and Hungary. Of all the mushroom species, Romanians prefer the species Agaricus (Champignon), while abroad the species is much more appreciated oyster, [46] and in East Asia the varieties Mu-Err and Shiitake.

      A lot of money is also made with powders, tinctures and capsules from "medicinal mushrooms". But the effect is doubtful. [47]

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